The massive size of locomotive engines and rolling stock forces rail manufacturers to decentralize and build plants as close to customers’ as possible. The challenge lies in developing standardized engineering technologies that can be transferred across the globe. At the same time, manufacturers require flexible factory solutions that work efficiently within each country’s local ecosystem of regulations, culture and language. Rail companies also need to develop lean resource processes that reduce manufacturing costs. This is particularly critical since manufacturers frequently lack sufficient internal resources to develop engineering designs.